Self-directed skills enhancement through cognitive skills training

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Counseling, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Educational Psychology, Bojnourd University, Bojnourd, Iran


Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-skills training to enhance self-directed skills in first grade female students of secondary high school of Shirvan city.
Materials and method: By employing a quasi-experimental method, a total of 40 students were randomly selected and divided in two control and experimental group (20 each group). Fisher’s self-directed questionnaire (2001) was employed for the assessment of self-directed skills.  After pretest cognitive skill training was performed for 16 sessions for experimental group.
Results: The results of ANCOVA revealed that cognitive skill training can increase self-directed skills of experimental group and make a significant difference between two groups I holding self-directed skills.
Conclusion:cognitive skill training enhance students' interest in academic study and help them learn the academic skills perfectly and appropriately employee self-directed skills in academic setting.


Abdullah, M. H. (2001). Self-Directed Learning. ERIC Digest.
Biemiller, A., & Meichenbaum, D. (1992). The Nature and Nurture of the Self-Directed Learner. Educational Leadership, 50(2), 75-80.
Brown, A. L. (1980). Metacognitive development and reading. Theoretical issues in reading comprehension, 453-481.
Caraway, K., Tucker, C. M., Reinke, W. M., & Hall, C. (2003). Self-efficacy, goal orientation, and fear of failure as predictors of school engagement in high school students. Psychology in the Schools, 40 (4), 417-427.
Doolittle, P. E., Hicks, D., Triplett, C. F., Nichols, W. D., & Young, C. A. (2006). Reciprocal teaching for reading comprehension in higher education: A strategy for fostering the deeper understanding of texts. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17(2), 106-118.
Dunlosky, J., & Bjork, R. A. (2008). The integrated nature of metamemory and memory. Handbook of metamemory and memory, 11-28.
Elgar, F. J., Arlett, C., & Groves, R. (2003). Stress, coping, and behavioral problems among rural and urban adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 26(5), 574-585.
Knowles, M. S. (1975). Self-directed learning. New York: Association Press.
Mahdizadeh, H., Safari, Y., Nadi, MA., & Paknia, L. (2012). The Effect of Educational software Designed Based on Meta-Cognition of the Students´ Self Direction at the Fifth Grade in Primary Schools of Kermanshah. Curriculum Planning, 31, 66-76[In Persian]
Merriam, S. B. (2001). Andragogy and self- directed learning: Pillars of adult learning theory. New directions for adult and continuing education, 2001(89), 3-14.
Moritz, S., & Woodward, T. S. (2007). Metacognitive training in schizophrenia: from basic research to knowledge translation and intervention. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20(6), 619-625.
Naeimi, L., Bigdeli, S., & Soltani Arabshahi, K. (2012). Level of self-directed learning readiness in medical students. Education Strategies in Medical Sciences, 5(3), 177-181.
Rovai, A. P. (2002). Development of an instrument to measure classroom community. Internet and Higher Education, 5(3), 197-211.
Rowland, F., & Volet, S. (1996). Self-Direction in Community Learning: A Case Study. Australian Journal of Adult and Community Education, 36(2), 89-102.
Sener, J., & Stover, M. L. (2000). Integrating ALN into an independent study distance education program: NVCC case studies. In Learning Effectiveness and Faculty Satisfaction: Proceedings of the 1999 Sloan Summer Workshop on Asynchonous Learning Networks (Vol. 1, p. 123). Olin College-Sloan-C.
Song, L. (2005). Adult learners' self-directed learning in online environments: Process, personal attribute, and context. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.
Stansfield, M., McLellan, E., & Connolly, T. (2004). Enhancing student performance in online learning and traditional face-to-face class delivery. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 3(1), 173-188.
Tracy, B., Reid, R., & Graham, S. (2009). Teaching young students strategies for planning and drafting stories: The impact of self-regulated strategy development. The Journal of Educational Research, 102(5), 323-332.
Victori, M., & Lockhart, W. (1995). Enhancing metacognition in self-directed language learning. System, 23(2), 223-234.
Yousefzadeh, M. R., Yaghoobi, A., & Rashidi, M. (2012). The impact of metacognition skills instruction on secondary school girl students’ self-efficacy. Journal of School Psychology 1(3), 118-133[In Persian].