Personality characteristics and self– efficacy in relapsed and non-relapsed addicted person

Document Type : Original Article


1 Educational psychology Department, Azad University, North Khorasan science and research branch, Bojnourd, Iran

2 M.A in Applied Linguistic, University of Tehran, Kish International Campus, Kish, Iran

3 M.A student in General Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd Branch , Bojnourd,


Introduction: People's beliefs in their efficacy play an important primitive role in providing Personality characteristics. Life-style habits and environmental hazards contribute substantially to constructing Personality characteristics in relapsed and non-relapsed addicted person. This study aimed at comparing relapse of addiction in the personality characteristics and self –efficacy of addicted individuals. The present study aims to examine the relationship between personality sketches with and self –efficacy in addiction relapse in addicted people.
Materials and method: The research sample included addicted and former addicted person with addiction and no addiction relapse who referring to Raha Kish clinical center in Iran. Participants were selected using random sampling. The instruments were the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) and self-efficacy scale. The hypotheses were tested using multiple analyses of variance, step by step differential analysis and between subjects effect test.
Results:Results showed that there is a meaningful difference between addicted person who relapse and those who do not relapse. Also all clinical scale could predict personality sketch but 3 in those addicted who do not have relapse.
Conclusion:addicted person who do not have relapse outperform in personality sketch and self-efficacy in compare with those addicted who have relapse lapse because of lower personality trait.


Abolmaali, KH., & Barkhordari, P. (2014). The Prediction of Mental Health Based on Social Problem Solving and Self- Efficacy among undergraduate students. International Journal of education and applied sciences, 1(2), 78-84.
Ahghar, GH. (2014). Effects of Teaching Problem Solving Skills on Students' Social Anxiety. International Journal of education and applied sciences, 1(2), 108-112.
American Society for Addiction Medicine (2012). Definition of Addiction. Retrieved from
Angres, D. H., & Bettinardi–Angres, K. (2008). The disease of addiction: Origins, treatment, and recovery. Disease-a-Month, 54(10), 696-721.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Craig, R. J. (1979). Personality characteristics of heroin addicts: a review of the empirical literature with critique-part II. Substance Use & Misuse, 14(5), 607-626.
Fouladchang, M. (2003) Evaluating self-efficient beliefs of schoolgirls in Fars province and proposing practical strategies, Proceedings of the Education Week in Fars Province, December 2003, pp. 75-99.
Kadden, R. M. (2002). Cognitive-behavior therapy for substance dependence: coping skills training. Unpublished work. Retrieved from
Keramati, M, R., (2014 a). Effect of student team achievement division (STAD) on academic achievement of undergraduate psychology students. International Journal of Education and Applied Sciences, 1(1), 37-47.
Keramati, M. R. (2014 b). A comparison of health-related quality of life and job satisfaction in physically active and sedentary faculty members. International Journal of education and applied sciences, 1(2), 68-77.
Kidner, C. L., Gatchel, R. J., & Mayer, T. G. (2010). MMPI disability profile is associated with degree of opioid use in chronic work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The Clinical journal of pain, 26(1), 9-15.
Kopstein, A. N., Crum, R. M., Celentano, D. D., & Martin, S. S. (2001). Sensation seeking needs among 8th and 11th graders: characteristics associated with cigarette and marijuana use. Drug and alcohol dependence, 62(3), 195-203.
Kornør, H., & Nordvik, H. (2007). Five-factor model personality traits in opioid dependence. BMC Psychiatry, 37, 1-6.
Krueger, D. (1981). Stressful life events and the return to heroin use. Journal of Human Stress, 7(2), 3-8.
Kwapil, T. R., Miller, M. B., Zinser, M. C., Chapman, L. J., Chapman, J., & Eckblad, M. (2000). A longitudinal study of high scorers on the Hypomanic Personality Scale. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(2), 222-226.
Mahdian, H., Tanhaye Reshvanloo, F., Zahmatkesh, Z., & Javidi, D. (2014). General health, psychological and social wellbeing: The role of personal and occupational factors. International Journal of Education and Applied Sciences, 1(1), 61-67.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of personality and social psychology, 52(1), 81- 90.
Muris, P. (2002). Relationships between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression in a normal adolescent sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 337-348.
Nielsen, P., Rojskjaer, S., & Hesse, M. (2007). Personality-guided treatment for alcohol dependence: a quasi-randomized experiment. The American Journal on Addictions, 16, 357-364
Parsaee, E. (2009). Investigating the relationship between meta-emotional views, parenting styles and emotional intelligence and self-efficacy of high school students. Unpublished thesis, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran [In Persian].
Peterson, C., Bettes, B. A., & Seligman, M. E. (1985). Depressive symptoms and unprompted causal attributions: content analysis. Behavior Research and Therapy, 23, 379,382.
Polimeni, A. M., Moore, S. M., & Gruenert, S. (2010). MMPI-2 profiles of clients with substance dependencies accessing a therapeutic community treatment facility. Sensoria: A Journal of Mind, Brain & Culture, 6(1), 1-9.
Rajabi, G. (2006). A study of reliability and validity of General Self-Efficacy Beliefs Inventory in psychology students of Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology of Shahid Chamran University and Azad University of Marvdasht. Journal of Modern Educational Thought, 2, 122-111[In Persian].
Rajaeepour, S., & Mohammadi, M. (2014). Emotional Intelligence and Personality traits as predictors of Academic Performance. International journal of education and applied Sciences, 1(1), 1-13.
Scholz, U., Doña, B. G., Sud, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2002). Is general self-efficacy a universal construct? Psychometric findings from 25 countries. European journal of psychological assessment, 18(3), 242-251.
Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.
Sher, K. J., Bartholow, B. D., & Wood, M. D. (2000). Personality and substance use disorders: a prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 818-29.
Stefansson, R., & Hesse, M. (2008). Personality disorders in substance abusers: A comparison of patients treated in a prison unit and patients treated in inpatient treatment. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6(3), 402- 406.
Swendsen, J. D., Conway, K. P., Rounsaville, B. J., & Merikangas, K. R. (2002). Are personality traits familial risk factors for substance use disorders? Results of a controlled family study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(10), 1760-1766.
Van den Oever, M. C., Spijker, S., Smit, A. B., & De Vries, T. J. (2010). Prefrontal cortex plasticity mechanisms in drug seeking and relapse. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(2), 276-284.
Verheul, R. (2001). Co-morbidity of personality disorders in individuals with substance use disorders. European Psychiatry, 16(5), 274-282.
Walton, K. E., & Roberts, B. W. (2004). On the relationship between substance use and personality traits: Abstainers are not maladjusted. Journal of Research in Personality, 38(6), 515-35.
Wulsin, L. R. (2001, January). A review of the evidence for a dose response relationship between depression and coronary disease. In PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE (Vol. 63, No. 1, pp. 174-175). 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS.
Wulsin, L. R., Valliant, G. E., & Wells, V. E. (1999).A systematic review of the mortality of depression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 6-17.