Document Type : Original Article
1 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine Thalassemia & Hemoglobinopathy Research Center Health Research Institute Shahid Baghaei the 2nd Hospital Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
2 Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
3 Preventing Psychosocial Damage Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.
4 Department of Epidemiology, Health School. Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.
We aimed to produce mapping geographical distribution patterns of skin cancer incidence with relation to geographical-climatic factors in Khuzestan province; 2009-2013. It was a descriptive and analytical study which has done on province; 2009-2013 information from all the patients who's were registered under cancer registry population based in Khuzestan. Data analyses were performed by using SPSS (version 16), independent t-test, Kruskai-Wallis test, and analysis of variance. Climatic factors mapping was performed using Arc GIS.ver10.3. Number of 2656 skin cancer patients were found from cancer registry population based in Khuzestan province. Average age of patients were 61.35±23.17 years old and percentage of Male and female was as 60.4% and 39.6% respectively. Cumulative incidence of skin cancer (5 years) among the population was 58.61/100000. Highest annual incidence was 12.76/100000 in 2010 and lowest incidence was 10.6/100000 in 2011. The relationship between skin cancer incidence and the cities of Khuzestan province was significant (p=0.04). The hot spots for skin cancer incidence in Khuzestan province were Behbahan, Ahvaz, Masjedsoleiman, Izeh, and Andimeshk. cancer skin incidence was not similar in different areas of Khuzestan province that in addition to demographic aspects, can be due to geographical and climatic factors. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct more studies on epidemiology and etiology to identify risk factors in different areas.
Akorafas G, Krespis E, Pavlakis G. Risk estimation for breast cancer development a clinical perspective. Surg Oncol. 2002;10(4):183-92.
Al-Ahmadi K, Al-Zahrani A. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:7207-28.
Amoori N, Cheraghi M, Fallahzadeh H, Rahmani H. Lack of Association between Using Aspirin and Development of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma: A Metaanalysis study. Asian Pac J Cancer. 2015;16 (2):787-92.
Amouzgar MH, Yazdanpanah MJ, Ebrahimirad M. Frequency of different skin cancer in Qaem hospital of Mashhad, from 1975-1995: A cross-sectional study. Iran J Dermatol. 2006;19:28-34.
Ansing AC, Heintz AP. Epidemiology and etiology of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Eur J Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Biol. 1993;48:111-5.
Behrooz MA, Seif F, asl JF, Behrooz L. Variation of cosmic ultraviolet radiation measurements in Ahvaz at different months of year. Jundishapur Sci Med J. 2011;9:45-50.
Coolins GL, Nickoonahand N, Morgan MB. Changing demographics and pathology of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the last 30 years. Semin Cutan Med surg. 2004;23:80-3.
Darvishizadeh N. The retrospective study of nonmelanocytic skin cancer in Emam Khomeini hospital of Ahwaz from 1373-1377. Iran J Dermatol. 1999;2:16-22.
Dfleming M, Hunt JR, Purdue GF. Marjolin's ulcers: A review and reevaluation of a difficult problem. Burn Care Rehab. 1990;11:460-69.
Glick B. The spatial autocorrelation of cancer mortality. SciMedGeogr. 1979;13:123-30.
Goldman GD. Squamous cell cancer: A practical approach. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 1998;17:80-95.
Hashemzadeh MS. Epidemiological Study of Lung Cancer in East Azerbaijan, Iran. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2009;1(4):7-12.
HHS (U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES). 2003. Cancer and the environment: what you need to know. Washington, D.C:HHS
Hoshor A, Zartosht M. Geographical pathology Iran. 2002;1:4. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/WCFsNWHOFCJAf.
Hunter J. The geography of health and disease. In The challenge of medical geography (Edited by:Chapel Hill). NC: University of North Carolina1974.
Irigaray P, Newby JA, Clapp R, Hardell L, Howard V, Montagnier L, et al. Lifestyle-related factors and environmental agents causing cancer: an overview. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy. 2007;61:640-58.
Jones K, Duncan C. Individuals and their ecologies: analysing the geography of chronic illness within multilevel modeling framework. Health & Place. 1995;1(1):27-40.
Karami K, Cheraghi M, Amori N, Pedram M, Sobhani A. Common Cancers in Khuzestan Province, South West of Iran, during 2005-2011. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15 (21):9475-8.
Kennedy M. the global positioning system and GIS. Second Edition Taylor & Francis ed2002.
Kennedy S. A geographic regression model for medical statistics. Soc Sci Med. 1988;26(1):119-29.
Konstantinos L, Leiter U, Meier F, Eigentler T, Metzler G, Moehrle M, et al. Age and gender are significant independent predictors of survival in primary cutaneous melanoma. Cancer Causes Control. 2008;112(8):1795-80.
Kricker A, Armstrong BK, English DR. Sun exposure and non-melanocytic skin cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 1994;5:367-92.
Lee CV, LIrving J. Sources of spatial data for community health planning. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 1999;5:7-22.
Leshin B, LWhite W. Malignant neoplasm's of keratinocytes. In: Arndt KA, Leboi PE, Robinson JK, Wintroub BU. Cutaneous medicine and surgery 1st Ed Philadelphia WB: Saunders Company. 1996:1378-440.
Marjani A, Kabir MJ. Male skin cancer incidence in Golestan province, Iran. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009;59(5):287-9.
Mackie RM, Quinin AG. Non-melanoma skin cancer and other epidermal skin tumors In: Burns T, Breathnach S, Cox N, Griffiths C. Rook' s textbook of dermatology. Oxford Blackwell Science Publication. 2004;36:1-36.
Mayer J. The role of spatial analysis and geographic data in the detection of disease causation. Soc Sci Med. 1986;17:1213-21.
Mehrabi Y, Yavari P, Abadi A. A study of cancer patterns among inpatients of public hospitals in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2004.387-92:)4(5.
Mobarak-Abadi A, Rajabi R, Khani Y, AlmasiHashiani A. Epidemiology of skin cancer in Markazi Province, Iran. Dermatology and Cosmetic. 2013;4(3):120-6.
Mousavi F, Golestan B, Vaseie M, Vaseie L, KhajehKazemi R. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of adults to the protective actions against sun in northwest Tehran, Iran. Arch Iran Med 2011;14:126- 31.
Noorbala MT, Kafaie P. Analysis of 15 years of skin cancer in central Iran (Yazd). Dermatol Online J. 2007;13(4):1.
Parker S, Tong T, Bolden S, Wingo P. Cancer statistic 1997. CA cancer J Clin. 1997;47:5-27.
Rahnama Z. Relationship between age, gender and site of lesion with pathologic score in squamous cell carcinoma. Iran J Dermatol. 2002;1:5-10.
Rhodes LE, Rie Md ,Enström Y, Groves R, Morken T, Goulden V, et al. Photodynamic therapy using topical methyl aminolevulinate vs surgery for nodular basal cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol. 2004;140:17- 23.
Rostami C, Asadollahi K, Sayehmiri K, Cheraghi M. Incidence rate of gastric cancer and its relationship with geographical factors using GIS in Khuzestan Province between 2009 and 2013. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2017;29:129-139.
Schaffer JV, Rigel DS ,Kopf AW, Bolognia JL. Cutaneous Melanoma past, present and future. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;51: 65-9.
Taylor SR. SunSmart Plus: the more informed use of sunscreens. Med J Aust. 2004;180:36-7.
Thom, A. 2008. Cancer will be the leading cause of death globally in 2010. http://www.givegain.com/cgiin/giga?cmd=cause_dir_news_Item&cause_id=1056&news_id=57430 (Date of access: 21 Jan 2010).
Torre L, Bray F, Siegel R, at A. Cancer Statistics. Cancer J Clin. 2015;65:87-108.
Valavi E, Rafie S, Pakseresht P, Siadat S. Prevalence of skin cancer in southwest of Iran. koomesh. 2013;15 (1):83 - 8.
Volkovova K, Bilanicova D, Bartonova A, Letašiová S, Dusinska M. Associations between environmental factors and incidence of cutaneous melanoma. Review. Environmental Health. 2012;11:1-13.
Wang L, CHEN S. Environment, genome and cancer. Academie des Sciences (III) Sciences del la vie. 2001;324:1085-91.
Wilkinson P, Grundy C, Landon M, Stevenson S. GIS in Public Health. In GIS and Health (GISDATA Series 6). Edited by: Gatrell AC, Löytönen M. Taylor & Francis ed1998.
Wheeler BW, Allen J, Depledge MH, Curnow A. Radon and skin cancer in southwest England: an ecologic study. Epidemiology. 2012;23(1):44-52.
Wheeler BW, Kothencz G, Pollard AS. Geography of non-melanoma skin cancer and ecological associations with environmental risk factors in England. British Journal of Cancer. 2013;109:235- 41.
Yazdanfar A, Ghasemi E. Frequency of skin cancers in Hamedan from 1991 to 2007. Dermatology and Cosmetic Journal. 2011;(2):115-123.