Document Type : Original Article


1 MA student of Counseling, Department of Counseling, School of Humanities, Bojnourd University, Bojnourd, Iran

2 MA in English translation, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Introduction: Happiness is a multifaceted construct that has recently been the subject of growing attention in the field of positive psychology and researchers have strived to identify its underlying factors. The search for happiness can be said to underlie all human behaviors. So, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between self-efficacy, academic achievement and happiness of students and to examine the moderating role of gender in the relationship of the study variables.
 Materials and method: self-efficacy and happiness scale was distributed among 200 university students of Bojnourd (100 female and 100 male students) who had been selected randomly. The average score of the last academic year of the students was considered as the measure of their academic achievement score. The reliability and validity of the scale were evaluated respectively through test-retest coefficient and factor analysis and correlation of the total score with the subscales.
Results: The results established the psychometric properties of the scale. For data analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used. Only happiness was able to predict self-efficacy. Also, the moderating role of gender was approved, and only in the group of male student both efficacy variables (positive and significant) and academic achievement (negative and significant) were able to predict happiness.
Conclusion: The results showed that the self-efficacy could predict happiness in both male and female students, whereas happiness was a predictor of academic achievement only in male students.


Abedini, M. (2002). The relationship between happiness and academic success of students in schools. Unpublished thesis, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran [In Persian].
Abolmali, K, Barkhordari, P. (2014). The Prediction of Mental Health Based on Social Problem Solving and Self-Efficacy among undergraduate students. International Journal of Education and Applied Sciences, 1(2), 78-84.
Alipour, A., & Noorbala, A. (2008). A preliminary study on the reliability and validity of the Oxford Happiness university students in Tehran. Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 17 & 18, 55- 65[In Persian].
Argyle, M., & Hills, P. (2000). Religious experiences and their relations with happiness and personality. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10, 157–172.
Argyle, M., & Lu, L. (1990). The happiness of extraverts. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 1011–1017.
Argyle, M., Martin, M., & Crossland, J. (1989). Happiness as a function of personality and social encounters. Recent advances in social psychology: An international perspective, 189-203. North-Holland: Elsevier.
Bahrami, S., & Farzianpour, F. (2011).  An Estimate of Happiness among Students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences: A Means for Policy Making In Management of Health System. Iranian Red Crescent Medical journal, 13(11), 841-843.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Carr, A. (2004). Positive psychology. Hove: Brunner-Rout ledge.
Cheng, H., & Furnham, A. (2002). Personality, peer relations, and self-confidence as predictors of happiness and loneliness. Journal of Adolescence, 25(3), 327-339.
Fouladchang, M. (2003) Evaluating self-efficient beliefs of schoolgirls in Fars province and proposing practical strategies, Proceedings of the Education Week in Fars Province, December 2003, pp. 75-99.
Francis, L. (1999). Happiness is a thing called stable extraversion a further examination of the relationship between the Oxford Happiness Inventory and Eysenck `s dimensional model of personality and gender. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 5-11.
Frank, R. (2000). The frame of reference as a public good. Economic Journal, 107, 1832–1847.
Frank, R. H. (2009). The frame of reference as a public good. Economic Journal, 107, 1832–1847.
Hadi Nejad, H., & Zare, F. (2009). Reliability, validity, and standardization of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Psychological Research, 12(1-2), 62 – 77. 
Heydari, S (1976). Effect of formative assessment to increase student achievement in high school. Unpublished thesis, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran [In Persian].
Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2001). Emotion stability as a major detention of happiness. Personal and individual id differences, 31, 1357- 1364.
Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1073-1082.
Keramati, M, R., (2014 a). A comparison of health-related quality of life and job satisfaction in physically active and sedentary faculty members. International Journal of Education and Applied Sciences, 1(2), 68-77.
Keramati, M, R., (2014 b). Effect of student team achievement division (STAD) on academic achievement of undergraduate psychology students. International Journal of Education and Applied Sciences, 1(1), 37-47.
Lawton, M. P., Kleban, M. H., Rajagopal, D. & Dean, J. (1992). Dimensions of affective experience in three age group. Personality and individual differences, (2), 171–184.
Levenson, R. W., Christensen, L. L & Guttmann, J. M. (1994). The influence of age and gender on affect, physiology, and their interrelations: a study of long-term marriages. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 67(1), 56–68.
Mahdian, H., Tanhaye Reshvanloo, F., Zahmatkesh, Z., & Javidi, D. (2014). General health, psychological and social wellbeing: The role of personal and occupational factors. International Journal of Education and Applied Sciences, 1(1), 61-67
Muris, P. (2002). Relationships between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression in a normal adolescent sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 337-348. 
Myers, D. G., & Diener, E. (1996). The pursuit of happiness. Scientific American, 274(5), 70-72.
Nordtveit, B. H. (2009). Western and Chinese development discourses: Education, growth and sustainability.  International Journal of Educational Development, 29(2), 157-165.
Okun, R., Levy, P., Karoly, L., & Ruehlman, B. (2009). Dispositional happiness and college student GPA: unpacking a null relation. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(4), 711-715.
Parker, D. R., Evangelou, E., & Eaton, C. B. (2005). Intraclass correlation coefficients for cluster randomized trials in primary care: the cholesterol education and research trial (CEART). Contemporary clinical trials, 26(2), 260-267.
Parsaee, E. (2009). Investigating the relationship between meta-emotional views, parenting styles and emotional intelligence and self-efficacy of high school students. Unpublished thesis, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran [In Persian].
Rajabi, G. (2006). A study of reliability and validity of General Self-Efficacy Beliefs Inventory in psychology students of Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology of Shahid Chamran University and Azad University of Marvdasht. Journal of Modern Educational Thought, 2, 122-111[In Persian]. 
Rajaeepour, S., & Mohammadi, M. (2014). Emotional Intelligence and Personality traits as predictors of Academic Performance. International Journal of Education and Applied Sciences, 1(1), 1-13.
Robbins, M., Francis, L. J., & Edwards, B. (2010). Happiness as stable extraversion: Internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire among undergraduate students. Current Psychology, 29(2), 89-94.
Safari, M. (2013). Association study of happiness, self-efficacy and academic achievement of students. Journal of Medical Education, 13, 27-22[In Persian].
Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211.
Scholz, U., Doña, B. G., Sud, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2002). Is general self-efficacy a universal construct? Psychometric findings from 25 countries. European journal of psychological assessment, 18(3), 242-251.
Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.
Spangler, W. D., & Palrecha, R. (2004). The relative contributions of extraversion, neuroticism, and personal strivings to happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1193–1203.
Tanhaye Reshvanloo, F., & Hejazi, E. (2014). Perceived parenting styles, academic achievement and academic motivation: A causal model. International Journal of Education and Applied Sciences, 1(2), 94-100.
Walton, G. M., Logel, C., Peach, J., Spencer, S., & Zanna, M. P. (2013). Two brief social-psychological interventions transform women’s experience, relationships, and achievement in engineering. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Wilson, T. D., Damiani, M., & Shelton, N. (2002). Improving the academic performance of college students with brief attributional interventions. In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education (pp. 88–108). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.