Document Type : Original Article


1 M.A student of clinical psychology, Azad university of Rodehen, Rodehen, Iran

2 Faculty of Psychology, Islamic Azad University - Roodehen Branch


The current study aimed to determine the differences between psychological Stress tolerance and executive function in normal people and individuals with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression. The statistical population if the study includes OCD, depressed and normal people. The study method was Causal-Comparative. Study sample includes 90 people with OCD, depression and normal people (30 people each) which were selected by purposive sampling procedure. Beck depression inventory, the distress tolerance and obsessive- intellectual (MOCI) scale and Wisconsin test were employed for assessment of the variables. MANOVA and follow up test were used for data analysis. Findings reveal that, there were significant differences in psychological tolerance distress and aspect of executive function in groups (p<0.001). Patients with OCD had significant deficiency in abstract thought, cognitive flexibility and improving efficiency with normal people. In addition, depressed people had got these deficiency which was a high difference (= 0.37). Due to the significant difference in Psychological tolerance stress and aspect of executive function in OCD, depressed and normal people it is necessary that the patient get an appropriate treatment by considering the psychological and aspect of executive function.


Alavi, Kh. (2011). Dialectical behavior therapy effective methods based on the fundamental components of mindfulness, distress tolerance, and emotional regulation on symptoms of depression. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 2(50), 124-35 [In Persian].
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual disorders.4ed. Washington DC.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub. 
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.
Angelakis, I., Gooding, P., Tarrier, N., & Panagioti, M. (2015). Suicidality in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical psychology review, 39, 1-15.
Assayag, Y., Bernstein, A., Zvolensky, M. J., Steeves, D., & Stewart, S. S. (2012). Nature and role of change in anxiety sensitivity during NRT-aided cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation treatment. Cognitive behaviour therapy, 41(1), 51-62.
Barcelo, F., (2001). Does the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) Measure Prefrontal Function? The Spanish Journal of Psychology 1, 79-100.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Carbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical psychology review, 8(1), 77-100.
Beck, A. T., Ward, C., & Mendelson, M. (1961). Beck depression inventory (BDI). Arch Gen Psychiatry, 4(6), 561-571.
Beck, A.T. (1978). Depression Inventory. Center for Cognitive Therapy, Philadelphia.
Berg, E. A. (1948). A simple objective technique for measuring flexibility in thinking. The Journal of general psychology, 39(1), 15-22.
Biringer, E., Lundervold, A., Stordal, K., Mykletun, A., Egeland, J., Bottlender, R., & Lund, A. (2005).Executive function improvement upon remission of recurrent unipolar depression. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 255(6), 373-380.
Brandt, C. P., Zvolensky, M. J., & Bonn-Miller, M. O. (2013). Distress tolerance, emotion dysregulation, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among HIV+ individuals. Cognitive therapy and research, 37(3), 446-455.
Decloedt, E. H., & Stein, D. J. (2010). Current trends in drug treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 6, 233-242.
Dobson, K., & Mohammad Khani, P. (2005). A psychometric coordinates of Depression Inventory 1- 2-in patients with major depressive disorder. Quarterly of Rehabilitation, Special Issue, Mental illness, 29 (8), 88-83.
Doron, G., Szepsenwol, O., Karp, E., & Gal, N. (2013). Obsessing about intimate-relationships: Testing the double relationship-vulnerability hypothesis. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 44(4), 433-440.
Franklin, D., Conrad, P., Aldana, G., & Hough, S. (2011, March). Animal tlatoque: attracting middle school students to computing through culturally-relevant themes. In Proceedings of the 42nd ACM technical symposium on Computer science education (pp. 453-458).ACM.
Goodman, W. K., Grice, D. E., Lapidus, K. A., & Coffey, B. J. (2014). Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 37(3), 257-267.
Grant, J. E. (2014). Clinical practice: Obsessive-compulsive disorder. The New England Journal of Medicine, 371 (7), 646–53.
Greden, J. F. (2001). The burden of recurrent depression: causes, consequences, and future prospects. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 5-9.
Katon, W., Lin, E. H., & Kroenke, K. (2007). The association of depression and anxiety with medical symptom burden in patients with chronic medical illness. General hospital psychiatry, 29(2), 147-155.
Kenny, M. A., & Williams, J. M. G. (2007). Treatment-resistant depressed patients show a good response to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Behavior research and therapy, 45(3), 617-625.
Koçak, O. M., Nalçacı, E., Özgüven, H. D., Nalçacı, E. G., &Ergenç, İ. (2010). Evaluation of cognitive slowing in OCD by means of creating incongruence between lexicon and prosody. Psychiatry research, 179(3), 306-311.
Krystal, A. D., Thakur, M., & Roth, T. (2008). Sleep disturbance in psychiatric disorders: effects on function and quality of life in mood disorders, alcoholism, and schizophrenia. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 20(1), 39-46.
Kuelz, A. A., Hohagen, F., & Voderholzer, U. (2004). Neuropsychological performance in obsessive compulsive disorder: A critical review. Biological Psychology, 65, 185-236.
Linehan, M. M. (1993). Skills training manual for treating borderline personality disorder. In M. M. Linehan (Ed.). Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.
Locascio, G., Mahone, E. M., Eason, S. H., & Cutting, L. E. (2010).Executive dysfunction among children with reading comprehension deficits. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(5), 441-54
Manteghi, A., Hebrani, P., Samari, A. A., Heydari, A. S. (2010). Level of expressed emotion, depression and caregiver burden in wives of veterans admitted in psychiatric ward and their relationship with readmissions. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 12(1), 410-419 [In Persian].
McHugh, R., & Otto, M. W. (2012). Refining the measurement of distress intolerance. Behavior Therapy, 43(3), 641-651.
McKay, D., Abramowitz, J. S., Calamari, J. E., Kyrios, M., Radomsky, A., Sookman, D., ...& Wilhelm, S. (2004). A critical evaluation of obsessive–compulsive disorder subtypes: symptoms versus mechanisms. Clinical psychology review, 24(3), 283-313.
Mesbah, N., & Abedian, A. (2006). The Relationship of Stress and Hopelessness among Students Residing in Dormitories. Iranian Journal of psychiatry and Clinical psychology, 12(2), 154-159 [In Persian].
Montazeri, N., Sorbi, M, H., Ahmadi, S. M., & Yazdanpour, Sh. (2014).Comparison of depression, anxiety and stress between athletic and non-athletic elderly in 2013.Quarterly scientific Journal of rehabilitation Medicine, 3(3), 15-22 [In Persian].
Norman, R. M., Davies, F., Malla, A. K., Cortese, L., & Nicholson, I. R. (1996).Relationship of obsessive—compulsive symptomatology to anxiety, depression and schizotypy in a clinical population. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35(4), 553-566.
Paelecke-Habermann, Y., Pohl, J., & Leplow, B. (2005). Attention and executive functions in remitted major depression patients. Journal of affective disorders, 89(1), 125-135.
Rachman, S. J., & Hodgson, R. J. (1980). Obsessions and compulsions. Prentice Hall.
Rao, N. P., Reddy, Y. J., Kumar, K. J., Kandavel, T., & Chandrashekar, C. R. (2008). Are neuropsychological deficits trait markers in OCD?. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 32(6), 1574-1579.
Rempfer, M., Hamera, E., Brown, C., & Bothwell, R. J. (2006). Learning proficiency on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in people with serious mental illness: What are the cognitive characteristics of good learners?. Schizophrenia research, 87(1), 316-322.
Rossi, A., Arduini, L., Daneluzzo, E., Bustini, M., Prosperini, P., & Stratta, P. (2000). Cognitive function in euthymic bipolar patients stabilized schizophrenic patients, and healthy controls. Journal of psychiatric research, 34(4), 333-339.
Simons, J. S., & Gaher, R. M. (2005). The Distress Tolerance Scale: Development and validation of a self-report measure. Motivation and Emotion, 29(2), 83-102.
Zvolensky, M. J., Bernstein, A., & Vujanovic, A. A. (2011). Distress Tolerance: Theory, research, and clinical applications. New York, NY US: Guilford Press.
Zvolensky, M. J., Vujanovic, A. A., Bernstein, A., & Leyro, T. (2010). Distress tolerance: Theory, measurement, and relations to psychopathology. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(6), 406-410