Document Type : Original Article

Author

Department of Medicine, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran.

Abstract

Selective attention is a state of attention in which a person can choose the target stimulus from among various stimuli and track it. A body of research shows that covid-19 infection is associated with cognitive deficits. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the performance of selective attention and working memory in adolescents recovered from acute and normal covid-19. The current study was a causal-comparative which was conducted on 59 adolescents aged 15 to 20 years who recovered from acute and normal covid-19 in 1400 in Karaj city, Iran. Selective attention was evaluated through the complex Stroop word software test and active memory through the Wechsler memory test, and Goldberg mental health questionnaire and the Wechsler intelligence test for blind people. By comparing the average scores of the two groups, it can be seen that the selective attention of normal adolescents is higher compared to adolescents who have recovered from acute Covid-19. By comparing the average scores of the two groups, it can be seen that the working memory of normal adolescents is higher compared to adolescents who have recovered from acute Covid-19. Based on the findings of the present study, selective attention and active memory of the recovered adolescent have been affected by Covid-19 during this period. Based on this, it is suggested to conduct research with a wider statistical population to identify the types of cognitive weaknesses of people who have recovered from Covid-19, so that major cognitive disorders can be prevented in time.

Keywords

Ahmed, M., Roy, S., Iktidar, M. A., Chowdhury, S., Akhter, S., Islam, A. K., & Hawlader, M. D. H. (2022). Post-COVID-19 Memory Complaints: Prevalence and Associated Factors. Neurología. [Link]
Almeria, M., Cejudo, J. C., Sotoca, J., Deus, J., & Krupinski, J. (2020). Cognitive profile following COVID-19 infection: Clinical predictors leading to neuropsychological impairment. Brain, behavior, & immunity-health, 9, 100163. [Link]
BAHRI, M., AHMADI, E., & BAHRI, M. (2015). Working memory function in state and trait anxiety: Attentional control theory. (Persian)
Baseler, H. A., Aksoy, M., Salawu, A., Green, A., & Asghar, A. U. (2022). The negative impact of COVID-19 on working memory revealed using a rapid online quiz. medRxiv. [Link]
Farnoosh, G. (2020). Alis hiri G, Hosseini Zijoud SR, Dorostkar R, Jalali Farahani A. Understanding the 2019-novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) based on available evidence-a narrative review. Journal of Military Medicine, 22(1), 1-11. (Doi: 10.30491/JMM.22.1.1)
Fellman, D., Ritakallio, L., Waris, O., Jylkkä, J., & Laine, M. (2020). Beginning of the pandemic: COVID-19-elicited anxiety as a predictor of working memory performance. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 576466. (https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.576466)
Hampshire, A., Trender, W., Chamberlain, S. R., Jolly, A. E., Grant, J. E., Patrick, F., ... & Mehta, M. A. (2021). Cognitive deficits in people who have recovered from COVID-19. EClinicalMedicine, 39, 101044. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101044)
Jabri (2021). Psychological considerations in children and adolescents during the Covid-19 crisis. Komesh 23(3), 317-319. (Persian)
Jama, J. W., Launer, L. J., Witteman, J. C. M., Den Breeijen, J. H., Breteler, M. M. B., Grobbee, D. E., & Hofman, A. (1996). Dietary antioxidants and cognitive function in a population-based sample of older persons: the Rotterdam Study. American journal of epidemiology, 144(3), 275-280. (https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008922)
Kasavandi, Amirani, & Pirzadeh Nouri. A review of the correlation between anxiety and the spread of covid 19. (1400) New Journal of Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology 11(43), 0-0. (Persian)
Kira, I. A., Alpay, E. H., Turkeli, A., Shuwiekh, H. A., Ashby, J. S., & Alhuwailah, A. (2021). The effects of COVID-19 traumatic stress on executive functions: The case of Syrian refugees in Turkey. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 26(7), 666-687. (https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2020.1869444)
Mcloughlin, B. C., Miles, A., Webb, T. E., Knopp, P., Eyres, C., Fabbri, A., & Davis, D. (2020). Functional and cognitive outcomes after COVID-19 delirium. European Geriatric Medicine, 11(5), 857-862. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s41999-020-00353-8)
Melchiorre, M. G., Chiatti, C., Lamura, G., Torres-Gonzales, F., Stankunas, M., Lindert, J., & Soares, J. F. (2013). Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries. PloS one, 8(1), e54856. (https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054856)
Nagarestani, Rashidi, Mohammadzadeh, Burhaninejad, & Vahidreza. (2021). Mental health of the elderly in the covid-19 pandemic: the role of exposure to the media. Almand Scientific Research Journal 16(1), 74-85.
Nikolin, S., Tan, Y. Y., Schwaab, A., Moffa, A., Loo, C. K., & Martin, D. (2021). An investigation of working memory deficits in depression using the n-back task: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 284, 1-8. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.01.08)
Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Based on Available Evidence - A Narrative Review. J Mil Med. 2020; 22(1): 1-11. (Persian)
Parasuraman, R. (2000). The attentive brain: issues and prospects. The attentive brain, 3-16. (Persian)
Schermer,C. R., (2005), “Language Learning Disorder”, Journal Pediatric,8:2.Sci.22(4):656-9. (doi:  10.30471/EDU.2019.1526)
Sheng, B., Cheng, S. K. W., Lau, K. K., Li, H. L., & Chan, E. L. Y. (2005). The effects of disease severity, use of corticosteroids and social factors on neuropsychiatric complaints in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients at acute and convalescent phases. European psychiatry, 20(3), 236-242. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2004.06.023)
WHO, G. (2020). Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). World Health Organization.
Zhao, S., Shibata, K., Hellyer, P. J., Trender, W., Manohar, S., Hampshire, A., & Husain, M. (2022). Rapid vigilance and episodic memory decrements in COVID-19 survivors. Brain Communications, 4(1), fcab295. (https://doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab295)
Zhou, H., Lu, S., Chen, J., Wei, N., Wang, D., Lyu, H.,  & Hu, S. (2020). The landscape of cognitive function in recovered COVID-19 patients. Journal of psychiatric research, 129, 98-102. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.06.022)