Document Type : Original Article


1 MS. c Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University South Tehran Branch, Iran, Tehran.

2 PhD General Psychology, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University South Tehran Branch, Iran, Tehran.



The recent pandemic of Coronavirus and its associated excess mortality have made the man more prone to feelings of isolation and being alone existentially. Therefore, it is necessary to identify, assess, and reduce such negative feelings. The present study aims to provide a Persian adaptation of the existential loneliness questionnaire (ELQ) and to examine its dimensional structure and psychometric characteristics. The ELQ items were translated into Persian using forward-backward translation method. Participant recruitment is conducted via social media platform and data is collected via online survey. Content validity was evaluated by the expert’s judgement, followed by factor analysis, validity, and reliability tests. Two samples of university students were collected. Sample 1 consisted of 305 students aged 18-53 years, completed the Persian adaptation of the ELQ and several other instruments: De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS), Existential Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Sample 2 consisted of 262 students aged 18-50 years, completed only the Persian ELQ to conduct Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) tests. According to Parallel Analysis (PA) and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) results, a unidimensional structure was found for the Persian ELQ, and the results of the CFA test supported this finding. The Multi-group CFA test supported the measurement invariance of the questionnaire across two samples. Evidence of high internal consistency (α =.91) and adequate test-retest reliability (r= .73) was found as well. The correlational analyses revealed a strong construct validity based on the ELQ score’s significant association with other criterion measures. According to the findings of the study, the Persian version of the ELQ is a reliable, valid, and psychometrically suitable instrument for use in Iranian samples of university students.


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