Document Type : Original Article


1 MSc, Department of Psychology, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 PhD, Department of Psychology, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.



The present study aims to examine dimensional structure and psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of the existential loneliness questionnaire (ELQ) in the Iranian Context. The items were translated into Persian using forward-backward translation method. Participant recruitment is conducted via social media platform and data is collected via online survey. Content validity was evaluated by the expert`s judgement. Two samples of university students were collected. Sample 1 consisted of 305 students aged 18-53 years, completed the Persian adaptation of the ELQ and several other instruments: De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS), Existential Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Sample 2 consisted of 262 students aged 18-50 years, completed only the Persian ELQ to conduct Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) tests.  According to Parallel Analysis (PA) and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) results, a unidimensional structure was found for the Persian ELQ. And the results of the CFA test supported this finding. The Multi-group CFA test supported the measurement invariance of the questionnaire across two samples. Evidence of high internal consistency (α =.91) and adequate test-retest reliability (r= .73) was found as well. The correlational analyses revealed strong construct validity based on the ELQ scores‘ significant association with other criterion measures. According to the findings, the Persian version of the ELQ is a reliable, valid and psychometrically suitable instrument for use in Iranian samples of university students


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