Validating Marital Commitment Inventory in Iranian state university students

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 M.A of Educational psychology, Islamic Azad university, Bojnourd Branch, Bojnourd, Iran

2 PhD of Educational psychology, Farhanghiyan university, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

This research was performed in order to validate the Marital Commitment Inventory among the students of Iran’s state universities which were selected by. The inventory was constructed via Delphi technique based on Johnson’s theoretical framework. It had 37 items and 2 additional items for detecting lies. In this way 500 persons were selected from the statistical population by employing multi cluster sampling. After that exploratory factor analysis was applied for assessing factor structure and construct validity of the inventory. Results: The outcomes realized that 12 out of 37 items were excluded because of meaningless factor loadings and there only stood 25 items. In order to inspect the residual items the confirmatory factor analysis was performed and approved the 25-item inventory with 6 subscales, including: social, personal, gratifying, moral, cultural, and logical- intuitive commitment. Except of the gratifying subscale which holds only 2 items, other subscales include at least 3 items. Using Cronbach’s alpha co-efficient the reliability of the residual items was confirmed. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Wilks Lambda were applied to compare the differences between bachelor and married students, and also female and male students. It represented that the average scores of the cultural subscale in married students are meaningfully higher than those of the bachelors. Besides it realized that the average scores of male students are meaningfully higher in moral and logical- intuitive subscale. Also female students have meaningfully higher scores in cultural subscale.

Keywords


Abdi Mohammad, khoshkonesh abolghasemi, taghipor ebrahim, mohammadi rohollah ,(1391). Investigate interest style and marital satisfaction of married involved individual in internet infidelity. Psychological studies .8(3):135 – 158
Adams, J. M., & Jones, W. H. (1997). The conceptualization of marital commitment: An integrative analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1177-1196.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S.(1978). Patterns of attachment: Assessed in the
Allen, E., Atkins, D., Baucom, D., Snyder, D., Coup Gordan, K., & Glass, S. (2005). Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual factors in engaging in and responding to extramarital involvement. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 12 (2),101-130
Aron, A., Aron, E. N., & Smollen, D. (1992). Inclusion of other in the self scale and the         structure of interpersonal closeness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 596-612.   
Arriaga, X. B, Agnew, C. R. 2001. Being committed: Affective, cognitive, and correlative components of relationship commitment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27: 1190-1203
AS Owen, J. J., Rhoades, G. K., Stanley, S. M., & Fincham, F. D. (2010). “Hooking up” among college students:
Askari parviz , pasha gholareza , azakish maryam .(1390). Comparing marital obligation and sexual satisfaction and life satisfaction of working women and housewives. thoughts and behavior .6(12): 60-53.
Atkins, D. C., Jacobson, N. S., & Baucom, D. H. (2001). Understanding Infidelity: Correlates in a National Random Sample. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 735-749. Buss, D. M. (2000). The dangerous passion: Why jealousy is as necessary as love and sex.
Atkins, D.C., Baucom, D.H., Jacobson, N. S. (2001). Understanding infidelity:
Bagarozzi, D. A., & Attilano, R. B. (1982). SIDCARB: A clinical tool for assessment of         social exchange in- equities and relationship barriers. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 8, 325-334.   
Baldwin, M. W. 1992. Rational schemas and the processing of social information.  Psychological Bulletin.112:461-484
Baucom. K; Coop Gordon.D.H, & Snyder D.k. (2005), Treating Couples Recovering From Infidelity: An Integrative Approach, Published online in Wiley InterScience, Journal of marital&family therapy, 30(2): 213-231.
Becker, H.S. (1960), ''Notes on the Concept of Commitment," American Journal of Sociology, 66, 32-42.
Becker, H.S. (1960), ''Notes on the Concept of Commitment," American Journal of Sociology, 66, 32-42.
Blau, P. M. Exchange and power in social life. New York, Wiley, 1967.
Bowen, M. (1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. New York: Basic Books.
Bronstein, P.M.1981. Clinical  treatment  of marital dysfunction: a multiple-baseline analyze
Bumpass, L.L., Sweet, J.A., and Cherlin, A. (1991). The role of cohabitation in declining rates of marriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family 53(4): 913–927.
Buss, D. M., Shackelford,T. K. 1997. Susceptibility to infidelity in the first year of marriage. Journal of Research in  Personality vol 31(193-221)
Call, V. R. A., Heaton,T. B.1997. Religious  influence on marital stability. Journal for the Scientific Study        of Religion.vol 36(3): 382-392
Cann, A., & Baucom, T. R. (2004). Former partners and new rivals as threats to a elationship: Infidelity type, gender, and commitment asfactors related to distress and forgiveness. Personal Relationships, 1305–318. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2004.00084.x
Cann, A., Mangum, J. L., & Wells, M. (2001). Distress in response to relationship infidelity: The role of gender and attitudes about relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 38, 185-
Correlates in a national random sample. Journal of Family Psychology. Vol 15(4), Dec 2001, 735-749.
Cramer, E. M. (1972). Significance tests and tests ofmodels in multiple regression. American Statistician,26,2630
Cramer, R.E., Abraham, W.T., Johnson, L., & Manning-Ryan, B. (2001). Gender differences in subjective distress to emotional and sexual infidelity: Evolutionary  or logical inference explanation? Current Psychology, 20, 327-336.
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 177.
David M Buss.(1999). Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and brain sciences.12 (1): 1-14
Dean, D. G., & Spinier, G. B. (1974). Commitment: An overlooked variable in marital adjustment. Sociological Focus, 7, 113-118
Demographic and psychosocial correlates. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 653-663. doi: 10.1007/s10508-008-9414-1
Drigotas, S. M.,  Barta, W. 2001. The cheating heart: Scientific exploration of infidelity. Current Directions in Psychological Science vol 10(5): 177-180
Drigotas, S. M., & Barta, W. (2001). The cheating heart: Scientific explorations of infidelity.
Drigotas, S. M., Safstrom, C. A., & Gentilia, T. (1999). An investment model prediction of datinginfidelity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 509–524.
Elangovan, A. R., Shapiro, D. 1998. Betrayal of trust  in organizations. Academy of Management Review,23: 547-586
Etcheverry,P.E Le,B.2005. Thinking about commitment: Accessibility of commitment and prediction of relationship persistence, accommodation, and willingness to sacrifice. Personal Relationships. Volume pages 103–123
Feeney, J.A. and Noller, P. (1996).Adult Attachment. Thousand Oaks, Callifornia.Sage
Fehr, B. (1988). Prototype analysis of the concepts of love and commitment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 557-579.
Fehr, B. (1988). Prototype analysis of the concepts of love and commitment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 557-579
Fitness. Betrayal, Rejection, Revenge, and Forgiveness:An Interpersonal Script Approach In: Leary, M. (Ed.) (2001) Interpersonal rejection (pp. 73-103). New York: Oxford University Press.
Fletcher, G. J. O., & Fitness, J. 1996. Knowledge structures in close relationships. A Social Psychological Approach.
Fletcher, G. J. O., Thomas, G. 1996. Close relationship lay theories: Their structure and function.
FloresC.G.2011.Two Commitment Models as Indicative of Marital Expectations in Newlywed Women. Psychology Student Research Journal.2011.1:14-21
Floyd, Frank J.; Wasner, Guenter H. Social exchange, equity, and commitment: Structural equation modeling of dating relationships. Journal of Family Psychology, Vol 8(1), Mar 1994, 55-73
Ghanbari hashemabadi bahram , Hatamivarzane abolfazl , Ismailia masome , Farahbakhsh kiumars (1390) . Relationship between parenting styles, interest and marital obligation in married women of allameh tabatabaei university scientific – researched quarterly of women sociology. 2(3): 61 – 39.
Ghareshi syed Ali,Akbar , ghamoghuran,6,darolkotoboleslamieh.1371.
Glasser, W., Glasser,  2007. Eight lessons for a  happier marriage.
Gordon, K. C., & Baucom, D. H. (2003). Forgiveness and marriage: Preliminary support for a  measure based on a model of recovery from a marital betrayal. The American Journal
Hasanabadi Hassan, mojarad Saied, soltanifar atefe .(1390) . The investigate of effectiveness of the emotion – focused therapy marital compatibility and positive emotions of couples with relations outside marriage. Researches of counseling and clinical psychology. 1(2): 25-38.
Hatami, A.Fathi, E.,Gorji,Z.Esmaeily,M. The Relationship between parenting styles and Attachment Styles in men and women with infidelity.Procedia.Social & Behavioral Sciences, 15: 3743-3747
Homans, George C. (1961), Social Behaviour: Its Elementary Forms. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.
Implicit theories of relationship: An intergenerational study.
Jemmott III,J,B.1. Ashby,K.LKathryn Lindenfeld,K..1989. Romantic Commitment and the Perceived Availability of Opposite-Sex Persons: On Loving the One You're With1.Journal of Applied Social Psychology. Volume 19, Issue 14, pages 1198–1211, October 1989
Johnson, D. J.,  Rusbult. C. E.1989. Resisting temptation: Devaluating of alternative partners as a means of maintaining commitment in close relationships. Journal  of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol 157(6):967-980
Johnson, M. P. (1973). Commitment: A conceptual structure and empirical application. Sociological Quarterly, 14, 395-406.
Johnson, M. P. (1982). Social and cognitive features of the dissolution of commitment to relationships. In S. Duck (Ed.), Personal relationships 4: Dissolving personal relationships (pp. 51-73). New York: Acade- mic.
Johnson, M. P. (1991). Commitment to personal relationships. In W. H. Jones & D. W. Perlman (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships (Vol. 3, pp. 117- 143). London: Jessica Kingsley
Johnson, M. P. (1995). Patriarchal terrorism and com- mon couple violence: Two forms of violence against women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 283- 294.
Johnson, M.P., Caughlin, J.P., Huston,T. L. 1999.The tripartite nature of marital commitment. Personal, moral, and structural reasons to stay married. Journal of Marriage and Family. vol 61(1):160-177
Kapinus, C. A., & Johnson, M. P. (1996, November). The utility of family life cycle as a theoretical tool. Paper presented at the National Council on Family Relations annual meeting, Kansas City, MO.
Karimian Nader , Karimi yousef , Bahmani bahman .(1390). Investigate relationship between mental health and feeling guilty dimension with marital obligation of married people . Quarterly of consultation and family psychotherapy. 1(2) : 256 – 243
Katouziyan Nasser general rules of contracts volume1,edition 2,Tehran,modres,1372.
Katzander. N. (2009), Attachment Style, Narcissism, Gender, and Attitudestoward Pornography: How Priming Betrayal Trauma Affects these Attitudes,Institute of Advanced PsychologicalStudiesAdelphi University.
Kelley, H. H. (1979). Conflict in the development of close relationships. In R.L. Burgess & T. L. Huston (Eds.), Social exchange in developing relationships (pp. 135-168).New York: Academic
Khodayarifard Muhammad, shahabi rohollah, akbarizardkhane Saied .the relationship between religious attitude and marital satisfaction in married students. (1386) .family studies .3(10): 130-115.
Kirkwood, C. (1993). Leaving abusive partners. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Kuhn, M. H., & Mc Partland, T. S. (1954). An empirical investigation of self attitudes. American Sociological Review, 19, 68-76.
Kurdek, L. A. 2000. Attractions and constraints as determinants of relationship commitment: Longitudinal evidence from gays, lesbians, and heterosexual couples. Personal  Relationships. Vol 7(3): 245-262
Lambert, N. M., Dollahite, D. C. 2008. The three fold  cord  marital commitment in religious couples. Journal  of Family Issues. Vol  29(5): 592-614
Le, B., & Agnew, C. R. (2003). Commitment and its theorized determinants: A meta-analysis of the investmentmodel. Personal Relationships, 10, 37–57.
Leik, R. K., & Leik, S. A. (1977). Transition to interpersonal commitment. In R. L. Hamblin & J. H. Kunkel (Eds.),
Levinger, G. (1979). A social exchange view on thedissolution of pair relationships. In R. L. Burgess &T. L. Huston (Eds.), Social exchange in developingrelationships (pp. 169-193). New York: AcademicPress
Levinger, G. (1988). Can we picture ‘‘love’’? In R. J.Sternberg & M. L. Barnes (Eds.), The psychology of love (pp. 139–158). New Haven, CT: Yale UniversityPress.
Levinger, G. A three-level approach to attraction:Toward an understanding of pai elatedness. InT. L. Huston (Ed.), Foundations of interpersonalattraction. New York: AcademicPress, 1974.
Levinger, G. Task and social behavior in marriage.Sociometry, 1964, 27, 433-448.
London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
 Lund, M. E. (1985). The development of investment and commitment scales for predicting continuity of personal relationships.Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 3-23.
Mahdavi mahammadsadegh, nasimi maryam. (1387). Sociological investigate of women satisfaction of marital affairs. Bulletin of social sciences .2(3): 26-5.
Mahoney, A.2005. Religion and conflict in marital and parent- child  relationships. Journal of Social Issues.vol 19(40): 689-709
Mahoney,A. Pargament,K.A. Swank,A.M. Swank,N.M.2003. Religion and the Sanctification of Family Relationships. Review of Religious Research .Vol. 44, No. 3, Mar., 2003  
Mashak roya, safarzade shar (1389) comparison of loving components ( lust , intimacy , obligation ) and marital satisfaction of male and female students. First national conference on health family and adjusting of life style.
 McCall, G. J., & Simmons, J. L. (1978). Identities and interactions. New York: The Free Press.
Momeni and mehravar javid , shoae kazemi mehravar .(1390). Research and health .1(1):111-102.
Mosko, J. 2009. Commitment and attachment dimensions in Partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Mulyd abbasi, Hussein. (1390). Relationship of marital obligation with couples cultural values . Case studying of south khorasan province, quarterly of east disciplinary studies .14:11 – 18.
Najarporian samane , bahmani  fateme, etemadi ozra, (1387). Effect of training of obligation ago marriage on improving obligation features of girl students in Islamic azad university of fasa unit. Family research quarterly .4(13).
Nuorani Puor Rahmat Allah, Besharat Mohammad Ali, Yousefi Eskandar.1386.the studying relationship between knowledge and sexual attitudes with marital satisfaction among couples living in the young researcher complex of martyr beheshti university. Consulting researches. 24:40-27
     of Family Therapy, 32, 179-199.
Pence, E., & Paymar. M. (1993). Education groups for men who batter: The Duluth model. New York: Springer
Pierce, T., & Lydon, J. (1998). Priming relational schemas:Effects of contextually activated and chronicallyaccessible interpersonal expectations on responses toa stressful event. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 75, 1441–1448.
Pope,A.L. Cashwell,C.S.2013. Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships. A Conceptualization From Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners. The Family Journal January 2013 vol. 21 no. 1 5-14191.
Raghib Isfahan Husain Ibn Mohammad, al-mofradat Fi Gharib al-Guran, Lubnan, Beirut, Dar al-ilm, al-Dar al-shammia.1412.lunar hegira.
Rands, Marylyn; Levinger, George. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 37(5), May 1979, 645-661.
Rezaie , javad , Ahamadi , trust ahmad , Etemadi , ezra and Rezaie hosseinabadi .(1391) . Effect of couple therapy Islam – oriented training on marital obligation between couples psychology of religion .5(1) : 60 – 37.
Rezapour Mir Saleh Yasser, Ismailia Masuome, Farah Bakhsh kuomars.1392.the effectiveness of ontology Islamic teachings on marital satisfaction of married women psychology and religion.6 (2):19-5.
Rosenblatt, P.C. (1977), "Needed Research on Commitment in Marriage," In G. Levinger and H.L. Raush (Eds.), Close Relationships: Perspectives on the meaning of Intimacy, Amherst: University of Massachusetts  Press
Rostosky,S.S.DWelsh. P. Kawaguchi.,.M.C, Commitment and Sexual Behaviors in Adolescent Dating Couples. Renee Vickerman Galliher, Utah State University
Rusbult, C. E. (1983). A longitudinal test of the investment model: The development (and deterioration) of satisfaction and commitment in heterosexual involvements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 101-117.
Rusbult, C. E., & Buunk, B. P. (1993). Commitment processes in close relationships: An interdependenceanalysis. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,10,175-204.
Rusbult, C. E., Martz, J. M., & Agnew, C. R. (1998). The Investment Model Scale: Measuring commitment level, satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and in vestment size. Personal Relationships, 5, 357-391.
Schmitt, D. (2003). Universal sex differences in the desire for sexual variety: Tests from 52 nations, 6 continents and 13 islands. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 85–104.
Shahsyah marzieh, fatemeh bahrami, mohebbi siamak (1388) investigate relationship between sexual satisfaction and marital obligation of spouses in Isfahan . research and scientific magazine of principles of mental health . 31:233 – 238.
Shoultez Davan. 1990.theories of personality. Translation of yousef karimi and colleagues. 1383, Arasbaran: 335-326.  
Stanley, S. M., & Markman, H. J. (1992). Assessing commitment in personal relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 595-608.
Sternberg, R. J. 1989. A triangular theory of love. Psychology  Review. vol  93(2): 119-135
strange situation and at home. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Volume 1. Attachment (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books
Tarehi fakhroldin , majmolbahrain , mortazavi, 1416.lunar hegira.
 Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.
Torabian lyla, amere faride, khodabakhsh roshanak . Compared investigate of characteristics of personality and interest style of unfaithful and betrayed and normal wives (1391) . Psychological studies .8(3): 9-26.
 Udry, J. R. (1981). Marital alternatives and marital disruption. Journal of Marriage and the Family 43, 889-897.
Zareie salman , hosaingholi fateme .1393.forecasting of obligation based on self – conscious emotions (I became and guilt) and their differentiation in married students . quarterly of counseling and family theory . 4(1):134-113.