Document Type : Original Article
1 M.A of Educational psychology, Azadshar Branch, Islamic Azad university, Azadshar, Iran
2 Assistant professor of educational psychology, Islamic Azad University, science and research branch, Tehran, Iran
The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between self-directed skills, Meta cognitive beliefs and learning styles with exam anxiety. The present study is qualitative and co relational study and from goal view was fundamental study. Statistical studies population was consist of all state high school Bojnourd student in academic year of 93-94. 331 participants have been selected through Kerjeci and Morgan formula and by employing multistage cluster sampling. Self-directed skills, Meta cognitive beliefs, learning styles questionnaire with exam anxiety scale were employed for the assessment of the variables. Statistical Finding by using structural educational modeling and confirmatory factor analysis reveals that only three relations (effect) among all effect of the model were significant. Self-directedness had direct and positive effect on learning styles. Meta cognitive beliefs had direct and negative effect on exam anxiety. Also learning styles had direct negative effect on exam anxiety. Increasing self-directed skills leads to increasing the quality of Meta cognitive beliefs. However, as different factors were affecting exam anxiety self-directed skills cannot have significant influence on exam anxiety of students. Although Meta cognitive beliefs had direct significant influence on exam anxiety of students but by mediation of learning style this relationship turns to be no significant. Because Meta cognitive beliefs by mediation of learning style cannot prevent forgetting format students learning and destroying students function on exam context.
Antony, M.M. & Swinson, R.P. (2008).The Shyness and Social Anxiety Workbook: Proven Step-by-Step Techniques for Overcoming Your Fear (2nd ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
Antony, M.M., Craske, M.G. & Barlow, D.H. (2006).Mastery of Your Specific Phobia (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Antony, M.M., Craske, M.G. & Barlow, D.H. (2006).Mastery of Your Specific Phobia (2nd Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Beck, A. T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R. L. (2005).Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective.Basic Books.
Emamipour, S., & Saif, A. A. (2001).To investigate the change in students' thinking styles and their relationship with the creativity and achievement, Journal of educational innovations, 12(4), 43-33 [In Persian].
Fischer, G., Giaccardi, E., Eden, H., Sugimoto, M., & Ye, Y. (2005). Beyond binary choices: Integrating individual and social creativity. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 63(4-5), 482-512.
Fournier, H., & Kop, R. (2010).Researching the design and development of a Personal Learning Environment.In 2010 PLE Conference.
Fournier, H., Kop, R. & Sitlia, H. (2011).The value of learning analytics to networked learning on a Personal Learning Environment. Paper presented at the 1stInternational Conference on Learning analytics and Knowledge, Banff,Alberta, Canada.
Friesen, N. (2010). Education and the social Web: Connective learning and the commercial imperative. First Monday, 15(12), 118-125.
Hall, J. M., & Ponton, M. K. (2005).Mathematics Self-Efficacy of College Freshman.Journal of Developmental Education, 28(3), 26-32.
Hope, D.A., Heimberg, R.G., Juster, H.R. & Turk, C.L. (2004). Managing Social Anxiety: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Approach, Client Version. Boulder, CO: Graywind Publications.
Kolb, D. A. (1984).Learning styles inventory. Boston: McBer & Co.
Kolb, D. A. (1999).Learning Style Inventory. Boston, MA: Hay/McBer TrainingResources Group.
Nadi, M. A., Gordanshekan, M., & Golparvar, M. (2011).Effect of Critical Thinking, Problem Solving and Meta-Cognitive on Students' Self-Learning.Research in Curriculum Planning, 8(1, 2), 53-61.
Palinscar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984).Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities.Cognition and instruction, 1(2), 117-175.
Pilling-Cormick, J., & Bulik, R. J. (2000).Further investigation into the use of the SDLRS in a clinical setting. HB Long & Associates, Practice & theory in self-directed learning, 219-230.
Pilling-Cormick, J., & Kops, W. J. (2000). Self-directed learning in the workplace: An exploratory study to identify organizations with a self-directed approach to training. Practices and theory in self-directed learning, 195-206.
Rafati, M. (2013).A study on the relationship between the Thinking Styles and the Learning Styles of the high school students in Tehran.Tafakor Va Kodad, 3(6), 63-81 [In Persian].
Sarason, I. G. (1980).Test anxiety: Theory, research, and applications. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc Inc.
Sarason, S. B., Davidson, K., Lighthall, F., & Waite, R. (1958).A test anxiety scale for children.Child development, 29(1), 105-113.
Schneider,W.(2008).The development of metacognitive knowledge in children and adolescents: Major trends and implications for education. Mind, Brain, and Education, 2(3), 114-121.
Schraw, G., Crippen, K. J., & Hartley, K. (2006).Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning.Research in Science Education, 36(1-2), 111-139.
Vøllestad, J., Sivertsen, B., & Nielsen, G. H. (2011). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for patients with anxiety disorders: Evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour research and therapy, 49(4), 281-288.
Wells, A., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2004). A short form of the metacognitions questionnaire: properties of the MCQ-30. Behaviour research and therapy, 42(4), 385-396.
Whitebread, D., Coltman, P., Pasternak, D. P., Sangster, C., Grau, V., Bingham, S., ...&Demetriou, D. (2009). The development of two observational tools for assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning in young children.Metacognition and Learning, 4(1), 63-85.
Williamson, S. N. (2007). Development of a self-rating scale of self-directed learning. Nurse researcher, 14(2), 66-83.